All about Creams

All about Creams

About Creams:


Creams are semi-solid emulsions which contain blends of oil and water. Their texture varies between liquids and solids. Salve (medical ointment for soothing purpose) and unguent (soothing products) compounds in earlier days led to the rise of cleansing and cold creams. With the help of additives such as emulsifying agents and newer techniques, the preparation of creams has become easy. There are different creams for face & body. In this article, we will guide you about both.


Creams?


Creams are semi-solid emulsions which contain blends of oil and water. Their texture varies between liquids and solids. Salve (medical ointment for soothing purpose) and unguent (soothing products) compounds in earlier days led to the rise of cleansing and cold creams. With the help of additives such as emulsifying agents and newer techniques, the preparation of creams has become easy.


Classification:


Creams can be classified according to their functions. They are:

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Classification


Creams can be classified according to their functions. They are:


Production of Cosmetic Creams and Lotions


Cosmetic creams and lotions are used for different purposes like cleansing and moisturizing. The ingredients are different according to the desired use, however, to some extent, the basic manufacturing process is the same.


The Process


Products can be either an oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsion, consisting of emollients and lubricants separated in an oil phase, and a water phase containing emulsifying and thickening agents, perfume, color, and preservatives. Active ingredients are disbanded in either phase depending on the raw materials and the desired properties of the end product. A typical manufacturing process would be as follows:

  • Flake/powder ingredients, such as cetyl alcohol and stearic acid, sometimes dry blended in advance, are dispersed into the oil phase. Heating may be required to meet some of the ingredients.
  • Active ingredients are dispersed in the appropriate phase.
  • The water phase, containing emulsifiers and stabilizers such as Veegum or Carbopol, is prepared separately.
  • The two phases are then mixed to form an emulsion. This is aided by heating to between 110 – 185℉ (45 – 85℃) depending on the formulation and viscosity.
  • Mixing is continued until the end product is homogeneous.

The Problem


Using conventional agitators several problems can be encountered:

  • Some ingredients can form agglomerates which standard agitators cannot break down.
  • One of the most difficult mixing operations is hydration of thickening and suspending. Agglomerates can easily form and some ingredients require shear to develop their desired properties.
  • When adding powdered components to the vessel, partially hydrated materials can build up on the vessel surface and parts of the agitator.
  • Agitators cannot easily form well-built emulsions even when the oil and water phases have been heated.
  • Long process times and additional equipment are often required to achieve a homogeneous product.

The Solution


Intermediate stages of production can be eliminated, product quality improved, and processing times dramatically reduced by using a High Shear Mixer. The advantages of the High Shear mixer stem from the 3 stage mixing/shearing action generated by the precision machined work head.


The Advantages


  • Consistent product quality and repeatability.
  • Agglomerate-free mix.
  • Stable emulsion.
  • Rapid mixing time.
  • Maximized yield of raw materials as thickening agents are fully hydrated and other ingredients fully dispersed.

Formulation


Table 1: Characteristics of Skin Creams

Skin creams are divided into two types: oil-in-water (O/W) creams which are made of small droplets of oil separated in a continuous phase, and water-in-oil (W/O) creams which are formed of small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily phase.

Functional Physicochemical Subjective

Cleansing Creams

Medium to High oil content

Oily

Cold Creams

O/W or W/O

Difficult to ‘Rub in’

Massage Creams

Low Slip Point oil phase

May be stiff and rich

Night Creams

Neutral pH

Also popular as lotions

 

May contain surfactant that improve penetration

 

Moisturizing Creams

Low oil content

Easily spreadable and ‘Rub in’ quality

Foundation Creams

Usually O/W

Available as creams and lotions

Vanishing Creams

Low slip-point oil phase

 

 

Neutral to slightly acidic pH

 

 

May contain emollients & special moisturizing ingredients

 

Functional

Physicochemical

Subjective

Hand & Body Protective

Low to medium oil content

Easily spreadable but do not ‘Rub in’ with the ease of vanishing creams

Usually O/W

 

Medium slip point oil phase

Very popular in lotion form

Slightly alkaline or acidic pH

 

May containing protective factors, especially silicon and lanolin

 

All Purpose Creams

Medium oil content

Very often slightly oily but should be easy to spread

O/W or W/O


Table 2: Typical Formulation: Cleansing Creams

The mixed-use of facial skin cleanser and moisturizer is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent women with sensitive skin.

Ingredient

Formulation 1 (%)

Formulation 2 (%)

Justification of Use

Stearic Acid

10

12.5

A key component of corneum lipids, an antioxidant and also potent anti-inflammatory lipid, non-toxic and non-irritant.

Cetostearyl Alcohol

1.5

2

It is used as an emulsion stabilizer, opacifying agent, and foam boosting surfactant, as well as an aqueous and nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agent.

Isopropyl Myristate

3

5

Emollient; oleaginous vehicle; skin penetrant; solvent, thickening agent, or lubricant.

Sorbitan Monolaureate

2

Lubricants, processing aids, specific to petroleum production. Solvents (for cleaning and degreasing), surface active agents .

Glycerin

6.5

Humectant/Emollient

Na-Lauryl SO4

5

Anionic surfactant; detergent; emulsifying agent; skin penetrant; wetting agent.

Triethanolamine

1.5

A surfactant or pH adjuster, alkalizing agent; emulsifying agent

Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Mono Laurate

2

Preventing surface adsorption and as stabilizers.

Water

61.5

68.5

 

Lanolin

0.4

Emulsifying agent

Coco-Na Isothionate

12

Surface active agents; Cleansing Agent

Perfume, Preservative

q.s.

q.s.

 


Table 3: Lightening Night Cream Formulation

Night and massage creams are designed to be left on the skin for several hours or to remain mobile on the skin even after vigorous rubbing.

Phase

 

 

 

 

A

Product

INCI

Supplier

%

Deionized Water

Water

– – – – –

62.10

Glycerin

Glycerin

Interchimie

4.00

Dermosoft® GMCY

Glyceryl Caprylate

Dr Straetmans*

0.50

Satiaxane CX 911

Xanthan Gum

Cargill

0.50

Biophilic H

Hydrogenated Lecithin (and) C12-16 Alcohols (and) Palmitic Acid

Lucas Meyer Cosmetics

4.00

 

Product

INCI

Supplier

%

B

Sunflower Oil

Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil

Emile Noel

5.00

Hazelnut Oil

Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil

Emile Noel

5.00

Cerabeil Blanche Selection

Beeswax

Baerlocher

4.00

Vitapherole® E1000

Tocopherol (and) Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil

VitaeNaturals

0.20

Lipex® 102

Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter

AAK

3.00

 

Product

INCI

Supplier

%

C

Deionized Water

Water

– – – – –

5.00

Whitessence

Artocarpus Heterophyllus Seed Extract (and) Maltodextrin (and) Disodium Phosphate (and) Sodium Phosphate

Lucas Meyer Cosmetics

2.00

Mamaku Vital Essence Nature PF

Water (and) Glycerin (and) Cyathea Medullaris Leaf Extract

Lucas Meyer Cosmetics

2.00

Exo-T

Butylene Glycol (and) Vibrio Alginolyticus Ferment Filtrate

Lucas Meyer Cosmetics

1.00

Tyrostat 09

Water (and) Glycerin (and) Rumex Occidentalis Extract

Lucas Meyer Cosmetics

1.00

 

Product

INCI

Supplier

%

D

Potassium Sorbate

Potassium Sorbate

– – – – –

0.30

 

Product

INCI

Supplier

%

E

Relax 2020/2

Fragrance

Vanessence

0.40


Table 4: Massage Cream Formulation

A beauty massage cream that promotes resilience and firmness while helping prevent sagging and other signs of aging. The great interest in eternal youth has developed a large market for skincare products claiming anti-wrinkle effects.

INGREDIENT

% of total

500 g

2 cups

Function

Part A

Distilled Water

38.10

190.50

3/4 cup + 1 TBS

Diluent

Glycerin

2.00

10.00

2 tsp

Humectant

Part B

Cetyl Alcohol

4.25

21.25

4 1/4 tsp

Thickener

Ethylhexyl Palmitate

23.00

115.00

1/2 cup

Occlusive oil for slip

Grapeseed Oil

8.50

42.50

3 TBS

Vegetable oil for moisturizing

Cetearyl Alcohol (and) Ceteareth-20

3.55

17.75

3 1/2 tsp

Emulsifier blend

Caprylic/ Capric Triglycerides

10.00

50.00

1/4 cup

Occlusive oil for slip

Sweet Almond Oil

3.50

17.50

3 1/2 tsp

Vegetable oil for moisturizing

Glyceryl Stearate (and) PEG-100 Stearate

6.10

30.5

2 TBS

Emulsifier blend

Part C

Germaben II

1.00

5.00

1 tsp

Preservative

Total

100 %

500g

2 cups

 


Table 5: Moisturizer Formulation

This term was developed by marketers, promoting its function to moisten the skin. Moisturizer and emollient are often regarded as synonymous, even when occlusives and humectants are also part of it.

No.

Ingredient

%

Justification

1

Isopropyl Linoleate

2

Lubricant

2

Glyceryl Stearate

3

Emollient; emulsifying agent

3

Diisopropyl adipate

2

Plasticizer, moisturizer, cleaning agent

4

Myristyle myristate

1

Emollient

5

PEG 40 Stearate

1

Surfactant; cleansing agent

6

Cetyl alcohol

1.5

Emollient; emulsifying agent; stiffening agent

7

Ceteareath-20

0.5

Emulsifying agent

8

Quaternium-22

2

Antistatic

9

Hydroxyethyl cellulose (2% aq)

25

Emulsifying, bubble-forming agent, viscosity-increasing agent.

10

PG

3

Preservative; disinfectant; humectant

11

Water

59

 

12

Perfume, preservative

q.s.

 

Creams are semisolid dosage forms that contain more than 20% water or volatile elements and typically less than 50% hydrocarbons, waxes, or polyols as channels.


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They may also contain one or more drug elements dissolved or dispersed in a suitable cream base. Traditionally, this term has been applied to semisolids that possess a relatively fluid consistency formulated as either water-in-oil (e.g., cold cream) or oil-in-water (e.g., fluocinoloneacetonide cream) emulsions. But, now the term has been restricted to products consisting of oil-in-water emulsions or aqueous microcrystalline dispersions of long-chain fatty acids or alcohols that are water washable and more cosmetically and aesthetically acceptable.


Composition


There are four main ingredients of the cold cream:

  • Water
  • Oil
  • Emulsifier
  • Thickening agent

Contraindications


  • If you have any health problems, consult your doctor before using them
  • If pregnant or breastfeeding consult a doctor before using them.